What’s New In Electric Motorcycles

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Whats New In Electric Motorcycles

Each year, electric motorcycles get faster, more powerful and go further between charges. Reviews of these e-bikes have become more favorable as time goes on and it seems that they might be ready for mainstream consumption. Currently, there are only two companies that have delivered electric motorcycles to the public: Zero Motorcycles and Brammo.

California-based Zero Motorcycles has four models in their 2014 lineup; each one designed with a different riding style in mind.

Zero SR Max Performance

Zero SR: Max Performance

- Up to 171 miles city range

- 67 hp (50 kW), 106 ft-lb

- 3.3 seconds 0-60 mph

The Zero SR is for the performance enthusiast who wants a race-ready motorcycle to take to the track. With its massive 106 ft-lb of torque available instantly, it will test even the most seasoned riders. A single-gear belt drive eliminates the need to shift, and bluetooth connectivity allows you to monitor power consumption, battery life and other data.

Zero S Streetfighter

Zero S: Streetfighter

- Up to 171 miles city range

- 54 hp (40 kW), 68 ft-lb

- 95 mph top speed

The Zero S is less of a track monster, but still very capable. The shocks have been upgraded for 2014 as well as the rear brake caliper and rotor, resulting in improved ride quality and control.

Zero DS Dual Sport

Zero DS: Dual Sport

- Up to 158 miles city range

- 54 hp (40 kW), 68 ft-lb

- 98 mph top speed

At its core, the Zero DS is identical to the Zero S, but it sports longer shocks and dual sport tires for off-road riding. Where dirt bikes are usually extremely loud, the DS is basically silent.

Zero FX Stealthfighter

Zero FX: Stealthfighter

- 44 hp (33 kW), 70 ft-lb

- 4 seconds 0-60 mph

- 85 mph top speed

The Zero FX is a versatile and lightweight bike that you can take on or off-road, and features removable batteries, allowing you to recharge virtually anywhere there is an available outlet.

More focused on racing than daily commuting, Brammo builds on last year’s successes with a newly designed Empulse and Empulse R for the 2014 model year.

Brammo Empulse

Brammo Empulse/Empulse R

- Up to 128 miles city range

- 54 hp (40 kW), 46.5 ft lb/66 ft lb

- 110 mph top speed

These bikes were built for spirited riding and are the only electric motorcycles equipped with a six-speed gearbox. The forward seating position, sport-bike styling and exposed battery housings give the Empulse a very aggressive aesthetic.

Prices for these motorcycles range from $9,500 for the Zero FX all the way to $20,000 for the Brammo Empulse R. It’s refreshing to see that the 2-wheeled industry hasn’t interpreted “going green” to mean “boring,” like some of the car industry has. With an already impressive selection of e-bikes and many more on the way, like the Energica Ego and the Agility Saietta, it’s an exciting time to consider switching from a traditional engine to a zero-emission, high torque electric motor.

  • bammerburn

    11 days until my new, ordered Zero FX 5.7 arrives! I am quite EXCITED.

  • William Connor

    I have ridden electric bikes and I find them lacking. Using the city miles rating for their MPG ratings is misleading. I think batteries have a future but we need to stop rushing it. They will be in racing far sooner than they will be an everyday useable item. For the money you spend you also lose a lot of comfort, features that are becoming standard on other motorcycles are lacking as well. Charging stations are non-existent on the East Coast so unless you only commute you can’t do much with it outside of a few miles on the weekend.

    I do really like the Zero DS and if the range and charging weren’t issues I would definitely consider owning one.

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      Both Brammo and Zero list city, highway, and combined city/highway ranges. Zero lists MPGe – a somewhat silly metric – for all 3 modes of operation, Brammo for none.


      There are more charging stations on the East Coast than you might think.

      • William Connor

        Nice picture, but not true. Not all of those are charging stations. They are places that will allow you to charge. Big difference. Charging stations are designed to use the quick charge, so maybe your journey can continue after lunch. The others are regular plug in locations that take hours. Take a look at actual charging stations and there are a lot less.

        The article lists only the max range in the city.

        • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

          Ah. “charging station” is a little bit ambiguous. Quick DC stations (CHAdeMO) are indeed less common, but there’s a good stretch from northern Virginia to southern Maine, all over Florida, and in parts of TN / FL / AL. Like Tesla’s Supercharger network, these CHAdeMO stations are spreading pretty quickly.


          As far as bike compatibility goes – the Zero bikes have an optional, expensive CHAdeMO adapter that will charge > 15% per 10 minutes. Brammo doesn’t have a quick DC adapter available yet. Mission R and Energica will charge > 25% per 10 minutes, but Mission has yet to announce details on which DC standard they will use and the Energica uses J1772 Combo, which hasn’t started to rollout yet.

          Agreed, this article would be improved by listing highway range as well.

  • Anthony Sanchez

    @william_connor:disqus they are in racing and have been for half a decade. lots of interesting races are had on E bikes. As far as Charging stations on the east coast, if you’re out there then you clearly have the potential to make good money becoming the first charging station on the east coast. Leaf, telsa, volts, it’s time to start thinking about how to facilitate innovation for products like these. Way to see a market need, time to fill it. It’s not a sit around and wait for things to happen time these days, it’s time for action.

    • William Connor

      I do not have the personal capital to make that happen, and so far investors are not lining up to support it either. Need money to fill this need.

  • Vincent T.

    How is it that the SR has the exact same range as the S, but significantly more power and torque? Bigger battery?

    • Richard Gozinya

      Has to do with the testing most likely. It’s a very soft, manufacturer friendly test cycle used to determine the range. Moreso than MPG tests even. Real world riding you won’t see those ranges, unless you weigh 90 lbs and never go above 50 mph.

      • benswing

        The manufacturer lists exactly how far you can go at 55mph and 70mph. If you are concerned about range, read the spec page and you will find the precise range. It has been found to be highly accurate by owners.

        • Richard Gozinya

          I seriously doubt those owners are pushing those bikes the way a typical rider pushes their ICE bike. These bikes are primarily used as commuters, particularly the Zeros. Which is a good thing, because they’re simply not built for anything more rigorous. If they were, they’d cost a lot more money.

          • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

            Riding a gas bike hard won’t return the manufacturer claimed MPG either. I hope no one is surprised by this..

          • benswing

            “Those owners” are finding accurate range numbers for the speeds listed. Not sure how one would “push it” going a steady 55 or 70mph.

      • Vincent T.

        The mileage tests have gotten a lot more realistic. It’s not manufacturers pulling numbers out of thin air anymore.

        • Richard Gozinya

          The test cycle was set up by the manufacturers. Yeah, it’s more realistic than a Euro test cycle, and especially better than the way Japan does things, but that’s a pretty low bar to clear.

          • Vincent T.

            It’s controlled by the EPA, but yes, guided by manufacturers.

          • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

            The test cycles are MIC and SAE standards, not something made up by a manufacturer.

    • Campisi

      The SR has an uprated motor controller, allowing the motor to access what’s in the battery that much better. It’s like putting performance intake, exhaust, and fuel injection components on an internal-combustion engine. I think the gearing of the belt drive is slightly tweaked as well.

    • benswing

      The SR has a bigger controller that can draw 660 Amps instead of the normal 440 Amps. Different motor that keeps cool better, too.

      I rode one and it’s a rocket!

      • Vincent T.

        That makes sense, but still seems strange (oddly coincidental) that they have the exact same range.

        • Campisi

          It’s because both bikes use the same sub-440-amp draw on the battery to reach and sustain the speeds required in the range tests both models are subjected to. The Sevcon 6 controller will only make a difference under heavy acceleration and at extra-legal speeds.

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      The primary difference with the SR is a larger motor controller, which CAN deliver more amps to the motor. None of the range tests require strong acceleration, so the range is basically identical for the same battery sizes.

      If you’re racing the bikes or riding hard, then the SR can deliver more power and therefore will deplete the battery more quickly. For commuting and light riding, though, range will be nearly identical.

  • Aaron Baumann

    I really want to like these, but the price comparison just isn’t there. Most of the ranges require the extended battery packs which pushes the price point to around $15k. That buys you a heck of a lot of motorcycle if you stick with a gas powered machine.

    • Richard Gozinya

      Batteries on these things are insanely expensive. The Zero SR is basically a 7000 motorcycle, when you remove the battery cost.

  • mike

    What do you do when the battery dies on the dual sport in the woods?

    • Innis O’Rourke

      the same thing you do if you run out of gas. hope you have cell service or hoof it back to town

    • Jeff Baysinger

      I dunno, but I bet pushing it home would teach you to keep a closer eye on the range indicator.

    • benswing

      You pay attention to your charge and don’t run out of battery. Same as with a gas bike and running out of gas.

    • Mr. White

      The Zero FX has removable batteries, so you could probably bungee a spare battery on the back of the bike and swap it out if you run out of juice.

    • Guest

      Plug into a Parks operated renewable energy charging station. Or find a bike with better batteries, maybe with an integrated charging system.

      • mike

        I guess this concept can work but I’ll just stick to my 250 2-stroke because there just more fun to ride.

        • Piglet2010

          Not if your riding area has a lot of people move in next door who object to 2-smoke noise and smell. This is very common now in Europe, so no surprise that KTM developed the Free Ride.

          • mike

            You just buy and fmf Q2 silencer and no noise problem. These electric things don’t look like they can ridden harder then that of an xr100. Pulse no one know how to set up an electric bike, so its going to handle like crap.

            • Piglet2010

              Which reminds me, why do so many non-racers use a racing exhaust? Very few things will go further to getting areas closed to off-road riding than the annoying sound (to most) of a loud dirt bike constantly going on and off throttle.

              • mike

                A quiet pipe is not a “race” pipe its designed for that issue in mind. If anything the stock pipe is louder and isn’t AMA or FIM approved. I’ve had a Q2 on a drz400 and it not loud or annoying at all. 4 strokes are what you have to worry about the boom of there sound wave travels compared to a 2 stroke which doesn’t.

                • Piglet2010

                  “A quiet pipe is not a “race” pipe…” – Just to be clear I never claimed it was.

                  I remember being in a lot of what would be now call “ex-urban” places where almost every nice day was ruined by kids or young adults on 2-stroke bikes or ATVs with “megaphone” exhausts – this lead to all motorized off-road vehicles being banned, even those with quiet exhausts.

    • Huarache Blog

      Plug into a Parks operated renewable energy charging station. Or find a bike with better batteries, or one that has an integrated charging system.

    • Ken Lindsay

      ride uphill on the first part of your journey and glide downhill on your way out. Worked for when I ran out of gas! Didn’t have far to push then. :-)

  • Nathan Haley

    No production electric cruisers yet, huh?

    • eddi

      Cruiser design would need an audience to buy it. All the potential customers want big V-Twins. Not “electric scooters”. They will be the last group to look at electric or any other alternate power source, no matter how practical or inexpensive it becomes.

      • Nathan Haley

        True, most of them do…but this is a market of hundreds of thousands per year. You think they’re ALL stereotypical Harley types?

        I have 2 friends who have stopped riding because their v-twins vibrate their hands to sleep, 1 who doesn’t ride his to work solely because he gets gas on his work clothes and another who only rides for half the season because his Harley dumps too much heat on his leg. None of them are v-twin fans but they all want the cruiser body style, so they put up with it. Cruiser riders are more diverse than you give them credit for.

        • eddi

          Cruisers aren’t just Harley types or no other manufacturer would make money on their similar machines. People like the looks. And that’s the rub about electric cruisers. The engine is the heart of the visual design. I feel strongly that even if you put all the other design elements in an electric model, a black box engine would kill any interest. Naturally, bikers being individualists by nature, there would be people who would like them for the unique look. But enough people to sustain a product? This may be on some back burners out there, but too soon for now.

          • Piglet2010

            How many cruiser riders would accept a nearly silent motorcycle?

            • eddi

              There are enough people riding Shadows and other models unmodified to suggest that will not be a problem within the general problem of will anyone ride them.

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      Lito Sora, in production now. $$$$$

      Brutus V9, near production AFAIK. $$$$

  • Jeff Baysinger

    My Zero S ZF8.5 is sitting at the dealer waiting for me to pick it up. I live 7 miles from work, so range hasn’t been my issue with these for a while. The performance envelope has finally gotten to where I wouldn’t feel nervous riding them on central Texas highways. I took one out for a test about 6 weeks ago and decided immediately that I needed to figure out how to put one in my life. Almost there, pick it up tomorrow! It’s gonna’ be a great weekend!

    If you haven’t tried either the Zero or the Brammo, you really owe it to yourself to find one to take out for a bit. It’s an eye opening experience. Watch the YouTube videos for an idea of what it’s like. Once they find the throttle, it’s all giggles, then more giggles the first time they stop and go searching for the clutch lever!

  • Doug Herbert

    The price to performance ratio isn’t better than gas engines yet, but it sure is getting better…When electrics cross over that threshold, I’ll be wanting one real bad. Full torque from 0 RPM has to be pretty awesome.

  • eddi

    The Zeros look like something I would buy. The price is a bit steep. But that’s not unexpected. Range and recharge facilities are my concern. I do know a couple spots in town with recharge facilities. But what about home base in an apartment. I sure can’t rewire for 220. Running an extension cord would be OK but is that enough?

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      An extension cord will charge the bikes fine if plugged in overnight or at work – the Zeros charge between 9 miles per hour (mostly highway) to 17 miles per hour (mostly city) on 120V. Make sure you can park somewhere where you can avoid running the cord across walkways, and use a 12 gauge cable (the Zero will pull 12+ amps).

      Also consider that the Zero bikes do not have a J1772 inlet by default. Zero does sell an accessory kit, but it only makes it compatible, it does not improve charge speed vs 120v. There are people who have built faster chargers for the Zeros that can make full use of the J1772 charging stations (1-2h charge).

      • eddi

        Important information to me. Thank you.

      • Piglet2010

        Since I live ~10 miles from an OHV park, an electric dual-sport is tempting if I could reliably get there and back at 45 to 55 mph speeds, and do 2 to 3 hours riding while there.

        • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

          This would be possible on the larger Zero DS bikes.

          A 20 minute ride @ 55 mph will use about 1/3 of the battery on a ZF8.5 bike, 1/4 of the battery on a ZF11.4 bike.

          Trail riding tends to use about as much energy as city riding (see ride reports from a forum user below), probably either bike would be fine. The ZF8.5 could do around 60 miles of trail riding excluding your 55 mph to/from ride, the ZF11.4 about 90 miles of trial riding.

    • Ken Lindsay

      You could always plug into your range or dryer outlet. Those are 240VAC! An extension cord is an extension cord.

      Also, the one zero has a removable battery you could take and charge inside or on your deck.

      • eddi

        Apartment dweller, no 240 appliances. Removable sounds like a good bet. I think I’ll put this on the back burner for a few years and get some miles on my V-Strom and see where battery tech ends up. I know the manufacturers know it’s a bottleneck issue.

        • Ken Lindsay

          The standard charger is a 120VAC charger you could plug in to a regular wall socket. Also, if you have an electrician friend and you have an electric panel in your apartment, you can make it work.

          I’m not trying to push electrics, I just want to throw those out there so you aren’t limited should you choose to go that route.

  • Zanpa

    Here is a fun fact: in Europe, there is a license for younger riders that restricts them to bikes under 35 kw (~48 hp). However, the way it is calculated for electric motors (continuous power instead of peak power) means that a Zero SR is eligible for this license… And so would be more powerful electric bikes if they were to exist.

  • RideaTart

    SWITCHING from gas to electric still doesn’t make much sense for most riders. But if you can have 2 or more bikes and just use the electric for commuting and shorties, it can work out very well. I put 50-60 miles a day Monday through Friday on my Empulse. In all, it will be about 10,000 miles a year on a bike that doesn’t need gas or engine maintenance. When you do the math, it’s not a bad financial proposition after a few years. And I would contend that there simply is nothing more effective for commuting.

    I’m getting by without a gas bike right now, but that won’t last long. I need to get back into longer rides and touring, so there’s a nice space next to the Empulse in the garage, just waiting to see what will fill it.

    • Jeff Baysinger

      That’s the right way to look at these things, IMO. These are not cross-country machines and they were never intended to be, at least for the current generation of electrics. Sure, you CAN ride one across the country, but doing so is usually for the point of doing so, not for the point of riding across the country. There are much better tools for that. On the other hand, I don’t think there’s a better tool for commuting and around-town scrambling. Wake up to a full battery in the morning, turn it on, ride it to work, ride it to lunch, stop by the grocery store on the way home, park it, plug it in, rinse, repeat.

  • Justin McClintock

    Where’s that guy to claim his Zero will outrun a Hayabusa?

  • Reid

    Those Zeroes need to ditch the bias-ply tires and Fast Ace components if they expect many people to pay the kind of prices they’re asking.

  • wjung88

    Can we have a little bit of discussion about acoustics of electric bikes? I ride in So Cal, on a SV650. I’m not one of those people who thinks louder is necessarily better, but I do think sometimes it helps me out. I also have times where I think a silent bike would be advantageous as well. I do split lanes, at stop lights and in traffic, and am wondering if the silent electric would be a death trap in LA or a godsend, or a little of both. Does anyone have any specific experience they can offer?

    • RideaTart

      People always talk about the disadvantage of not being heard (which, I believe, is real, but of course impossible to quantify), and not so much about the advantages of being almost silent. How about being able to hear better (which might actually enhance safety)? Less risk of tinnitus (though I still wear earplugs for windnoise)? And all the perks of not drawing attention to yourself every time you roll on? You lose a certain measure of safety on an ebike, but you gain in other areas.
      On a philosophical level, the problem with the “loud pipes” credo is that, if everyone followed it, the world would be a very noisy place, and not really a world I’d want to live in.

      • Piglet2010

        “the problem with the “loud pipes” credo is that, if everyone followed it”

        We would have a sea of deafening noise, with any individual vehicle’s noise signature lost in the background. If there is any safety benefit to loud pipes (a dubious contention), it would be lost.

    • Jeff Baysinger

      I don’t think the big problem with the lack of noise is with other motorists but with pedestrians. I ran into this on my test ride, scared the crap out of some poor lady crossing the street with her face buried in her mobile. I think she caught a bit of movement in her peripheral vision as I approached, and when she looked up, there I was, rolling up to the stop sign. Even though she wasn’t in danger of being struck or anything, it was enough to startle her. She literally jumped backward, I thought she was going to tip a heel and break her ankle! I don’t ride especially loud bikes otherwise (03 955 Sprint, 08 Versys, 97 Magna, all stock exhaust systems) and have never fully subscribed to the “loud pipes” credo just because sound isolation and entertainment systems in modern cars are capable of muting out the pipes anyway. I just always assume they can’t see or hear me, that they don’t know I’m there. Pedestrians are more unpredictable though, they’ll step right out in front of you. It’s definitely something that the rider will need to keep in mind.

    • Ken Lindsay

      E bikes are actually kinda loud at full speed since the whine of the motor is a pretty high pitch. Ever had an RC car? Remember how loud it would be as it zipped around. Even more so with a bike. I would definitely want some sort of hearing protection for that reason.

      Jeff nailed it concerning pedestrians. But then again, some ICE cars are so quiet that people are not aware of their presence. People just have to look around. If a deaf person can do it, so can everyone else.

      Lastly, the quieter bikes would go along way to make friends with the people in 4 wheel vehicles. There is absolutely no reason to startle people as they are sitting at a stop light while you split lanes on your obnoxiously loud bike. I know so many people that have expressed road rage at those riders because of the noise. I ride with a stock muffler just for that reason. I remember moving to CA and being pissed when a guy on a super loud bike sat and revved his engine at a light and woke up my baby. I vowed never to be that guy.

      • wjung88

        Haha ya, that’s how I feel when I split lanes at lights. I feel bad being the loud, speedy vehicle, coming up next to people who don’t assume another vehicle can even fit into the space between their car and the next car. I never even considered sleeping babies and would feel really bad waking one up.

        • Ken Lindsay

          I didn’t either until it happened. I do all sorts of things different now that I’m a dad.

  • Adrastos34

    I really like the idea of a higher end electric Dual Sport. I could move around in areas that might cause noise complaints on a gas bike (even though I am allowed to be there).Or just move through the forest and enjoy the sounds of nature as I go along. As soon as ranges come up to what I think its respectable and practical I will without a doubt buy one. It would be great to see the use of recently researched super-capacitors. Last year an 18 year old high school girl named Eesha Khare for the Intel science and engineering fair invented one that can fully charge a cell phone in about 20-30 seconds and last 10,000 cycles. (Many batteries are only about 1,000 cycles) Most people seem to be thinking about small consumer electrontics for their use. Imagine though how effective it would be for something like a motorcycle. They would be light weight and compact and take a charge so fast you could have little stations up to almost insta charge a bike. Industry has already spent enormous amounts on R&D for this kind of thing. I am sure they are looking keenly at her as an investment opportunity so it can’t be to far off as a consumer product.

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      Super capacitors could be interesting if the energy density comes way up, but they’re not very interesting right now.

      Even if public quick charge stations were common, I’d probably do 80% to 90% of my charging at home. And home charging takes only 10 seconds: plug in at night, unplug in the morning.

      And when I’m out and about, I’d rather spend 30 minutes charging to get 1.5-3 hours of riding in than to spend 1 minute charging to get 5-10 minutes of riding before needing to charge again.

      That’s how bad supercaps are.

  • Send Margaritas

    Still, going 85 miles from your garage is stretching it. The Iron Butt Rally is out.

    • Lucy Sky Diamonds

      By the time one of these goes as far as its range, charges up then continues, those hardly serious boys would have barely done 50 miles!

  • Piglet2010

    My local (relatively speaking) track only has 120V electrical service in the pit areas. Would any of these models recharge enough in ~35 minutes to be able to run 7 or 8 ~20 minute track sessions, assuming starting the day with a full charge?

    • Campisi

      You’d likely be relying on an external charger (like the quick charger unit Zero sells), but enough people are tracking these that there’s certainly some reasonable way of going about it.

      • Piglet2010

        I can see the tracks in the SW that operate year around installing charging stations, but here in the Upper Midwest where the tracks operate for 6 to 8 months a year and hold fewer than 10 motorcycle track days a year, it will be a hard sell. An external charger that runs off 120V and can provide adequate charge would do, but the expense and inconvenience of a second battery pack or having to bring a large, expensive, and noisy generator will kill the idea of an electric track bike for most.

        • Campisi

          “An external charger that runs off 120V and can provide adequate charge would do”

          That’s what I was referring to, as even in the Southwest most tracks couldn’t justify installing dedicated electrical equipment for battery vehicles.

          A better way to do the mental math on this one would be to look at some of the published reviews for these bikes. Most publications get about sixty miles of hard canyon riding per charge; divide that by the length of a single lap at the track of your choice, and you’ll have an idea of how many laps you’ll manage per charge.

    • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

      No. One 20 minute track session will use around 1/3 to 2/3 of the charge, depending on how fast you’re riding and what battery size you buy.

      If you can find 240V 30A service AND you build a larger charger then you can probably charge enough in 30-40 minutes for 1 20 minute session. 120V isn’t enough.

      • Piglet2010

        So how much would a track have to charge extra for use of a charging station to break even? Probably very few people will be taking electric cars to track days (a few rich Tesla owners might).

        On a similar line, how much would it cost the DNR to install a charging station at the OHV park – suppose it could be credit card activated and metered to recoup the cost?

        • http://protomech.wordpress.com/ protomech

          One 20 minute session would cost around $0.40 to $1 in electricity, depending on how hard you’re riding and how much your utility charges for electricity.

          If your park has RV camping then it may already have high-power circuits in place that could be used for charging, so they may not need to install dedicated charging equipment. Depending on the track you may have to pay for an RV camping spot or pay some other nominal fee to access the sockets, ie they may not charge per energy but just instead charge a flat fee.

          For example, this portable cable will plug into a 120V or 240V outlet to charge an EV that uses a J1772-compatible charger. I know of one Empulse owner that uses something very similar for his trackdays.

          Or if you’re building your own high-powered charger, you could simply build it with a NEMA 6-30 connector on the end and skip J1772 completely.

          As far as installing EV charging stations .. the actual charging station cost ranges from about $500 for a no-frills wall-mounted charging station (no metered charging) to a couple grand for a commercial charging station with metered charging. Installation costs for wiring and trenching and whatnot can range from “free” if DIY to a few thousands depending on how far away the site is from existing power.

          If you want to read more, here’s a set of case studies here of facilities that have installed EV charging stations for employees, what solutions they chose and why, what the costs were, etc.

          It may simply not be worthwhile to the track to install a metered station until it gets a lot of use – the extra cost for a metered station can cover thousands of hours of charging.

          If that’s too expensive or not worth dealing with, there’s a company that installs metered charging stations on the property free of charge (to the property owner) and then charges the EV owner per session, roughly equivalent $1.50 – $2 to recharge one 20 minute track session (remembering that the actual electricity cost is $0.40 – $1).

  • Mugget

    For everyone who believes that loud pipes save lives, and therefore believe that quiet bikes endanger lives – I’m just going to say:

    If loud pipes save lives, imagine what learning to ride could do.

  • Lucy Sky Diamonds

    Only the Mission-R makes me lust.