Nortongate

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Category: Dailies

The online rumors and claims started around two years ago: all was apparently not well with Stuart Garner’s newly re-incarnated Norton….  Sections of the motorcycle media and consumer organizations were approached by unhappy customers, detailing their grievances. A UK bike builder published details of his own unhappy relationship with Norton on his website, and other complaints popped up in a variety of contexts, from the BBC to Classic Bike. But nothing was followed up, and the rumors kept on coming.

Prompted by an email from an unhappy customer, we decided to investigate – since no one else seemed to be bothering. When Norton did get extensive coverage, it appeared to concentrate on spinning the company’s PR activities, such as their dubious venture to the Isle of Man.

BACKGROUND

We collected evidence in the form of statements, signed correspondence, and interviews with a variety of individuals: Norton customers, suppliers, and dealers – including highly respected individuals with many years experience in their field. All of them were contacted again pre-publication to ensure anything attributed to them was accurate. In cases where a source preferred to remain anonymous, they provided evidence of their identity and their relationship with Norton. All source details are listed at the end of the piece.

The picture they painted makes for disturbing viewing. Problems have not gone away, despite the 2011 EXEFG Government backed Santander loan aimed at boosting exports (and underwritten by the tax payer). We’re publishing registered company accounts for 2010 and 2011, plus details of Mr.Garner’s previous directorships and extracts from a company report on Norton, along with key allegations and evidence.

ALLEGATION 1

Norton Motorcycles has consistently failed to fill orders on time, despite holding deposits of up to 100 percent, a problem which has not gone away. In some cases customers have waited almost two years for a bike – or a refund, at which point they have had little option but to seek legal advice.

EVIDENCE

Customers who contacted us provided accounts which are remarkably consistent. A deposit is paid – up to 100% – on the basis that the bike is about to be built. The bike fails to materialize, and despite fresh delivery dates being promised, very little happens after that until the threat or commencement of legal action eventually results in the situation being remedied.

Richard Anderson is a solicitor who has successfully acted for eight such customers, with another two cases currently being examined. He said:

“Clients had paid money for a product which was not forthcoming. In such circumstances recovering funds becomes the objective, and in order to facilitate that, we were obliged to instigate serial winding up proceedings against the company on behalf of individual clients. At which point Norton satisfied the debt in question.”    

Richard Anderson¹

Bike builder Steve Hillary was one such customer, and published his account of his experience online. In a nutshell, Hillary waited two years for a bike, having paid a £12,000 deposit. It took the threat of a winding up order for him to finally get his money back, despite a personal meeting with Norton’s CEO, during the course of which the charismatic Mr.Garner made promises about delivery which were never kept, another familiar refrain from customers, suppliers and dealers alike.

 “Going to a solicitor was the last resort. I was just fed up being lied to.”  

Steve Hillary ²

Clare from Cornwall (name disguised) ordered a twin seat Cafe Racer for her husband as a 25th anniversary present in February 2011 – at which point no such machine, parts or necessary tooling actually existed, and no twin seat CAD drawings had been prepared,  according to a separate source⁶ (see below). Having initially put down a £1,500 deposit, in July 2011 Norton rang her saying a ‘cancellation slot’ could be secured via payment of the balance. Reassured by positive Norton coverage in MCN on 1/8/11, Clare took out a loan and paid up. Nothing happened. In March 2012, three weeks before a winding up order taken out on Clare’s behalf was due to be enforced against them, Norton finally paid out. The stress of the experience is still with her.

“We ordered and paid a £1500 deposit for a dual seat café racer for my husband for our 25th wedding anniversary in Feb. 2011 at the factory itself, supposedly due for delivery in June. June came and went with no news. We kept phoning and struggled to get through. Eventually we reached them and were told by the Sales Manager, Craig Lormer that there was a problem with  the parts for the dual seat, hence the delay, and that the bike was now scheduled for delivery in late September. However, in July they phoned to say there was a cancellation slot so they could guarantee us delivery for a single seat café racer on a dual frame in 2 weeks if we paid in full to secure the slot. I thought this strange but the papers incl. MCN were full of praise for them…. so we paid up. 2 weeks came and went, no bike and not even an invoice to confirm we had paid. Calls went unanswered. I eventually received a call from Craig  to say that the factory had temporarily ceased  production due to problems with their suppliers! We were willing to maintain the order as long as they returned all our money bar the deposit and gave us a new delivery date. They refused on both counts – Craig advised we would have to cancel the order ab initio to get our money back, which I did. He sent me an email in  Sept to say that the refund request was being processed and,  presumably because he knew he was about to leave the company, he also supplied me with the invoice I had requested on numerous occasions. Then we heard nothing more from him….”   

Clare’s Statement ³

 Norton themselves admitted to the BBC* in late November 2011 that a backlog existed, and our evidence suggests that this was still the case as recently as May 2012. We also have a statement from another customer with an outstanding order (August 2012) which, eighteen months after a full deposit was paid, has still not materialised despite the promise of numerous delivery dates:

“Awaiting bike for 18mths after paying in full and being promised at least 6 definite delivery dates.”   

Rob’s Statement ⁴

MATTERS ARISING

A simple internet search will turn up page after page of irate customer comment. They could all be making it up, but the fact that a disparate group of individuals, from territories scattered across the globe, are autonomously exposing their own difficulties with the same small company, strongly suggests otherwise.

ALLEGATION 2

Norton have experienced severe problems obtaining spares, exacerbated by deteriorating relationships with manufacturers and suppliers, at least one of whom had to take legal action to recover monies owed to them by Norton.

EVIDENCE

Fritz Egli, legendary MD of Egli Racing, became Norton’s Swiss importer. This was what he had to say about his relationship with Norton.

“Unfortunately our relationship with Norton has been problematic. There have been a number of ongoing issues, particularly a chronic shortage of spares. ”

Fritz Egli ⁵

Egli is currently involved in talks with Norton aimed at resolving “serious difficulties” he has experienced with the company. As a result, he was unable to comment further, but will be keeping BG informed of developments.

A senior ex-manager at Norton now employed elsewhere, who can not be named but whose identity is known to us, witnessed problems relating to suppliers at first hand.

“Many suppliers were significantly overdue payment. This caused the vast majority of product supply to move to a pro-forma plus debt basis, i.e a repayment plan must be agreed, maintained for a period and then, and only then, would parts be released on a cash before delivery basis. This was extremely difficult to manage due to the insufficient funds available within the business.”

Manager, Ex-Norton ⁶

This view was corroborated by Steve Gentil, director and co-founder of Xtreme Motorsports, who was contacted by Garner to fabricate frames for the 961 after Garner fell out with Xtreme’s predecessor, PAB Coventry. Gentil said:

“Our relationship with Norton in general and Stuart Garner in particular was problematic. Their business dealings with us left an awful lot to be desired. We no longer supply frames to Norton.”  

Steve Gentil ⁷

Nigel Gibson is the MD of Fabriweld, 35 years in the business of manufacturing tubular steel products. In June 2012 the firm made 85,000 separate items, and Fabriweld have a solid business reputation. Fabriweld were contracted to produce panels for the 961. Nigel Gibson spoke to us about his perception of Norton, and his firm’s dealings with them.

“They were a nightmare to do business with. They had absolutely no understanding of the business they were in.”  

Nigel Gibson ⁸

No wonder Fritz Egli had a parts problem. Likes so many others, Gibson had to resort to legal action to recover monies owed (to Fabriweld by Norton).

MATTERS ARISING

Nigel Griffiths told us that when his bike was in for servicing, the top end was removed for no apparent reason. His suspicion was that it was urgently needed to furnish another bike.⁸ It wouldn’t be a huge surprise, since Egli’s statement and the manager’s statement corroborate each other regarding the constant problems with supply of spares. Egli was not the only Norton dealer to experience difficulties: we know of at least one other EU dealer who experienced serious supply problems.⁹

It has been suggested to us that the supply problem has not gone away, since the root cause of many of Norton’s difficulties – insufficient capitalization – has never been satisfactorily addressed. Financial evidence we’ve published here suggests that the overall situation deteriorated sharply in 2011, despite the Santander loan.

ALLEGATION 3

Norton are in serious financial trouble.

EVIDENCE

The information reproduced below (documents, public domain) doesn’t look encouraging. But as long as Mr.Garner is prepared to fund the company (albeit on a subsistence basis), and is able to stave off legal challenges (like winding up orders) the current situation could continue for a while. The latest County Court Judgement against Norton took place as recently as July 2012 for some £14,500, with attendant implications. Credit ratings agencies reports on Norton do not make for encouraging reading for any potential investor and Garner’s own company history (reproduced below) is suggestive  of an intriguing relationship with business financing.

Almost everyone we spoke to about financial matters while researching this piece offered the same explanation for Norton’s predicament, one born out by published accounts. The operation was under capitalised from the start. Unless that scenario is swiftly remedied, it becomes self perpetuating, as Norton’s suppliers and customers soon discovered. According to our management source, there was ‘a serious lack of investment, infrastructure and resources‘ ⁶, a situation compounded by the high number of employees relative to sales.

MATTERS ARISING

A constant struggle for solvency has appeared to characterize many of Norton’s dealings during the Garner era. It is normally beyond the scope of a wealthy individual to bankroll an automotive factory – even if the factory is a small assembly unit where little or no fabrication takes place. Norton’s high quality, low volume ethos, targeting middle aged men with disposable income had to allow for a sufficient margin on each unit. We suspect that the margin was insufficient, and this, combined with the lack of capitalization, was at the heart of the problem.

ALLEGATION 4

Norton have quality control issues.

EVIDENCE

Engines are currently assembled on site from parts sourced from a variety of manufactures. The quality of those parts depends on Norton being able to retain the services of high quality suppliers, which in turn depends on the firm’s ability to pay them on time. As we have seen, that is a questionable construct.

We were sent a document by a highly respected bike builder who had stripped a 961. Like many people involved in the story who still have some connection with Norton, he was reluctant to be identified. We forwarded his report to Steve Hillary, the only other person we knew of who had gutted a 961. Steve concurred with the report findings, which included:

"Swing arm bearings not wide enough apart, base too narrow and lacking in rigidity. Swing arm bearings unsuitable. Headstock bearing bores for outer bearing races distorted from welding process. 0.2mm – 0.3mm out of round and not in line. Should be machined and aligned after headstock is welded."  ¹⁰

A further eighteen items were cited including issues with the valvetrain and gearbox.

MATTERS ARISING

Although Norton have a dyno in situ at their Donnington Park HQ, a Norton dealer we spoke to claimed that it was not regularly used for engine testing. Our management source claimed that road testing was a haphazard affair and that there was no proper inspection regime.

“From a quality point of view, no inbound parts from the supply chain (engine or chassis) were subjected to inspection processes."
  
Manager, Ex-Norton ⁶

ALLEGATION 5

Norton experienced a rapid turn over of staff at all levels. Senior managers and associates left the company because they felt professionally compromised by Norton’s activities under Stuart Garner’s control.

EVIDENCE

We know of at least one senior manager who left for precisely that reason.

“…eventually, like so many others, I felt that I could no longer compromise my professionalism and continue to be associated with this company.”  

Manager, Ex-Norton ⁶

We know from his signed and detailed statement that Norton have experienced an exceptionally high turn over of senior staff, including designer Pierre Terblanche. The association with rotary designer Brian Crichton – potentially of great significance to the new venture – was also prematurely curtailed. Staffing difficulties continue to plague Norton. As recently as July 2012 Norton were found to have unfairly dismissed Danni Hendley, an 18 year old female apprentice, who was awarded £7,000. She was never informed as to the reason for her dismissal and was left feeling needlessly ‘ashamed’. ¹¹

MATTERS ARISING

More than one source told us that Terblanche left because he recognised Norton’s business model was unsustainable, and the development of entirely new machines – for which he had responsibility – had no basis in reality. Terblanche himself was quoted in print ¹² describing his experience as “disastrous”.

ALLEGATION 6

A UK consumer organization is pursuing Norton with regard to its treatment of members.

EVIDENCE

The Consumer Action Group (CAG) is investigating the company. They have contacted Norton, but at the time of writing had not published their findings. Their investigation continues.

In in the interests of balance, we put a list of questions raised by our research to Norton company secretary Kay Johnson, who responded by referring us to the CAG. It was clear from our subsequent correspondence with the CAG that many pertinent questions – including our own – remain, hence the ongoing nature of their inquiry.

MATTERS ARISING

The CAG forums were the arena in which many unsatisfied Norton customers documented their problems.

NORTON’S RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MOTORCYCLE PRESS

That sections of the UK motorcycle media have made some very poor calls regarding their coverage of Norton is no longer a matter of dispute. MCN admitted to BikerGlory¹³ that evidence had been placed before them early in 2011 by irate Norton customers. Which came as no surprise: a dissatisfied customer had already published (online) details of his approach to MCN, who confirmed that his was by no means an exceptional case.

The story was spiked in favour of the usual coverage, disseminating the more florid examples of Garner’s spin: the return to GPs in 2012, the new rotary, expansion into new territories. Even the apparently chaotic forays to the Isle of Man were prominently hyped up, much to the chagrin of unhappy customers, while the elephant in the room was studiously ignored. We have already seen how this policy negatively impacted upon Clare – see Allegation 1 – who took MCN’s reporting at face value and handed over a 100% deposit to Norton on the basis of it. Why did MCN deliberately ignore an inconvenient series of truths?

“We had been aware of various difficulties Norton were struggling with, not least since unhappy customers contacted us directly. We never doubted the integrity of their allegations. It was a question of deciding on a course of action which would be the least destructive for all those involved. After much soul searching, we decided that given the Santander loan, we would let the matter rest, for two reasons. Firstly, we hoped that the loan would ease Norton through their difficulties, and initially that seemed to be the case, since complaints to us dropped off in the second half of 2011, i.e. post loan. Secondly, we knew that a major expose would finish the company, and obviously we wanted to avoid that. If someone were to come forward with hard evidence that the same issues were still in play post Santander and into 2012, we would re-consider our position on the story.”

John Westlake, MCN Managing Editor.¹³

In other words, MCN took their eye off the ball post Santander despite the BBC November 2011 story and allegations continuing to appear online.

The sole exemptee from the collective blind spot in the Bauer stable was Classic Bike freelancer Mick Duckworth. In the July 2011 issue ¹², he told the story of another disgruntled customer, John Fahy, and was the only journalist to secure a quote from the outgoing Terblanche (see above).

“I felt strongly that there was a story to tell regarding Norton’s shabby treatment of customers and was glad that Classic Bike wanted to follow this, but subsequently felt that CB was not taking a strong enough line. The last time I spoke to Stuart Garner he said he was not willing to give me information, because I seemed sceptical. But, he said,  if I were to ‘get on-side’ with Norton, his door would always be open.”

Mick Duckworth ¹⁴

Thus we have two possible explanations for the unbalanced Norton coverage. To some extent one can appreciate the dilemma MCN found itself in, knowing home truths that it dare not print for fear of collapsing the company. But would Norton really have gone under in the event of the reality being exposed? The crucial export market would have remained relatively unscathed: cleansing the stables is not quite the same thing as burning them to the ground, and exposure might even have encouraged Norton to finally get its house in order.

On the other hand, we have no evidence of an improper relationship between Norton and the media, inevitable rumors and getting “on-side” notwithstanding. (Ironically, the bike press’s relationship with the industry was the subject of a recent BikerGlory inquiry. ) All we can definitely say is that Norton escaped censure while reaping the reward of extensive positive coverage.

CONCLUSION

Egli, Gentil and Gibson all cited difficulties with Garner as being central to the demise of their relationship with the company. Gibson – whose experience of manufacturing makes his opinion on such matters worth listening to – suggested that Norton could succeed with the right person running the company. Motorcycle production requires an experienced individual – with detailed knowledge of manufacturing, engineering and supply – in a very senior executive position. At Norton, Garner himself was responsible for key decision making in these areas, and Gibson questioned his suitability for the role.

Whatever the truth about Stuart Garner’s management style, almost everyone we spoke to has referred admiringly to his ability to turn on the charm, beguiling even hardened interlocutors, such as Nigel Griffiths, the Consumer Action Group and experienced journalists. But no amount of charm can make up for the trail of distress engendered by mismanagement, as Clare’s account an Danni Hendley’s experience demonstrate.

No one doubts that Garner has a genuine passion for Norton. He enjoys the image afforded by his position, playing the role of chef d’equipe and being seen in the pit-lane with the usual suspects – and no one can blame him for that. Unfortunately, it has nothing to do with the financial reality of the day to day running of a motorcycle manufacturer. The evidence we have seen (particularly regarding spares) is suggestive of a frantic, hand to mouth culture, so often a symptom of under capitalised operations.

Customers, our management source told us, were regarded as fortunate to be getting a Norton, and should be able cope with inconveniences during the process of acquisition ⁶. It is hard to imagine an attitude further removed from either John Bloor’s (Triumph) at one end of the new Brit scale, or Simon Saunders’ (Ariel) at the other. Bloor is a businessman with sound financial savvy and the intelligence to delegate to specialist employees. Saunders understands mechanical engineering and its relationship to the market place (as the redoubtable Atom amply demonstrated). Neither seem remotely out of their depth. For all his undoubted ability to win over sceptics, Garner’s adventures suggest that staying afloat may be a serious challenge. Treating customers, suppliers and dealers with respect might be a start – there are a lot of discontented people and businesses out there whom Norton have managed to alienate: our sources represent the tip of a nasty iceberg.

One thing is clear: simply saying nothing and hoping problems will go away is no longer a responsible judgement. The truth, as they say, will out.

DOCUMENTS (Public Domain)

It is important to remember that these documents give a background picture only. The company report linked below contains references to events which took place as recently as July 2012.

a) Instant Report_NORTON MOTORCYCLES (UK) L_06718623

b) filed accounts, 2010 /11

c) Stewart Garner Directorships

SOURCES

1. Richard Anderson, solicitor, contemporaneous notes from telephone interview 9/8/12.

2. Steve Hillary, Norton customer, MD of Redmax Speed Shop: a) contemporaneous notes from telephone interview 9/8/12. b) experience of Norton published in Redmax blog http://bit.ly/QYR1v0
c) email correspondence with BikerGlory

3. Clare from Cornwall, customer, name disguised, identity known to BikerGlory, written statement including documentation demonstrating her link to Norton.

4. Rob, customer, name disguised, written statement emailed to BikerGlory, identity and purchase independently corroborated.

5. Fritz Egli of Egli Racing, Switzerland, Norton Dealer. Contemporaneous notes from telephone interview 9/8/12 and others; email correspondence.

6. Norton ex-manager’s written statement to BikerGlory and contemporaneous notes from several telephone interviews, July and August 2012. Identity known but withheld from publication at his request.

7. Steve Gentil, MD Xtreme Motorsports, contemporaneous notes from telephone interviews July 2012.

8. Nigel Gibson, MD Fabriweld, contemporaneous notes from telephone interviews July 2012.

9. BikerGlory correspondent’s personal interview with EU Norton Dealer June 2012, identity withheld at latter’s request.

10. Document submitted to BikerGlory by established bike builder with ongoing Norton business connection, hence identity withheld; document forwarded to Steve Hillary for comment; written confirmation from Hillary to BikerGlory re document’s veracity.

11. Derby Telegraph, 24/7/12

12. Classic Bike, July 2011

13. John Westlake (MCN) statement to BikerGlory July 2012

14. Mick Duckworth, email statement to BikerGlory, 7/8/12

* BBC news online 28/11/11, Mike O’Sullivan interview with Stuart Garner.

Sources 1-9, 13 and 14 were shown comments attributed to them in this piece. All confirmed that the comments were an accurate reflection of their original statements.

COMMENTS (a selection of comments from BikerGlory)

"I can only speak as I find. I am an owner of a Norton 961se, I ordered the bike at the NEC show in November 2009 and paid a £1600 deposit at that time. The quoted delivery date was March or April 2010, the bike was built and collected from Donnington Park on the 28th April 2010 The post transaction service I have received from the company has been second to none, I have not been lied to by the company at any point of time. My bike featured in an article in Classic Bike magazine during the summer of 2010, I am happy with the bike and the after sales service I have received. Whilst I apprieciate this is not the same experience that some others have had, it is fact. What Stuart Garner has done so far with Norton is remarkable, however the job is not yet complete. Norton must continue to focus on delivering bikes on time and keep customers informed as to the progress of their orders." — Simon Jeffries

"I ordered my 961 Special Edition over a year and a half ago. I put down my deposit, waited as numerous delivery dates came and went, and only started to lose failth when the dealer and Norton themselves stopped returning my calls. Sorry to be a bother guys, but had I been told I would be waiting 2 years I might have hesitated to hand over the cash! lol I did received a pretty vague letter in the mail claiming they were going to deliver the bike this Summer, but Summer is nearly gone and I don’t have much faith this will happen. It’s a shame as for many months I dreamed of owning this bike, lately I’ve been more just wondering how it might end. (lost deposit if the company goes under, bike full of defects if they try to push out the product without the proper resources, or ???) Time will tell." — Rich

"I was one of the three original people involved in the new Norton project instigated by Stuart Garner. I had several meetings with Garner explaining that he needed huge amounts of money to be able to produce good quality motorcycles. At the time the only motorcycle that we could make was a copy of the NRV588 Rotary which I had built for the National Motorcycle Museum of a bike I designed for the 1994 race season. I said to him that I needed a proper test bed facility and all the necessary equipment to achieve this. He said there was no problem at all with financing this and I questioned him as to whether he had sufficient funds to finance this and the Norton factory start up. He always maintained that the money was no issue. I therefore agreed to take on the role of Technical Director of Norton Racing which was the only Norton company at the time. In my contract it stated that I was to receive 10% shares of the company for my expert involvement. After starting, it became obvious to me that the guy was just full of bullshit and I didn’t get any testbed or any facilities for building the two NRV588 Rotary’s. I said for the bikes to be reliable I needed to develop new rotor bearings which were the weak link in the engine. There weren’t even ramps in the so-called workshop so I built the bikes in my own workshop at home. Garner kept asking me when was I going to go to the unit at Donington to work on the bikes and I told him that if he thought I was going to crawl about on the floor to build bikes he must be joking. Eventually he agreed to get me some ramps and some equipment… Sentence removed from original pending corroboration. Now we’ll talk about the Isle of Man TT. The first I heard about it was when I’d arranged to do some testing at Donington Park with Lee Dickinson to ride the bike. When I arrived in the garage I was introduced to Michael Dunlop and told that he had come to test the bike as he was riding it at the TT. I was obviously very unhappy about this as the bike was never designed for the TT circuit and was a lightweight quick turning short circuit bike completely wrong for the TT. I also said that the rotor bearings would not stand the long straights etc of the TT circuit due to overheating. I had several meetings with Garner telling him in no uncertain terms that if we go to the TT we would be made to look a laughing stock as the engine would break but as usual he would not listen to somebody that knew what they were talking about. Consequently Spondon Engineering had to rush and make two more chassis with bigger oil tanks and geometry to suit the TT Course. Due to this, the bikes were still being built up when we arrived at the I-o-M. The rest is history about this saga as everything happened the way I said it would and the engine failed in practice. Garnder said in MCN etc that every engine we had blew up at the I-o-M in fact, we only ever had two engines and only one blew up twice. Once at Jurby and once on the practice lap. Now for the 961 which came as a protype from Kenny Dreer of America. I said that it would need a lot of redesign and extensive testing before it ever went on sale. But again, Garner thought he knew better and basically copied the bike and put it into production. Although according to MCN reports etc. the bike was supposedly completely redesigned. This was untrue. Inevitably, there were reliability issues. Because Garner’s attitude and the lack of sufficent funds to finance Norton properly, I resigned. I didn’t want to be professionally associated with Garner. Obviously the 10% shareholding I signed for in the contract never materialised. Lots of well known people in the motorcycle industry bought into the idea of Norton, but in my opinion we were all conned. Many left when they found out the truth. Staff also experienced problems when it came to getting paid. I also feel very sorry for the people that have paid upfront in full for their bikes and have not received them: it’s the same old story. Look at all the promises that have been made by Garner regarding a new 700cc Rotary that he says in the comics has been made and is ready to test on the dyno? What about the MotoGP bike he said they were building? It’s all just spin. The new TT bike that they said had been designed inhouse was in fact a road Aprilia engine put into a sawn off NRV frame – not a Norton at all and how lucky was Garner that the Senior Race was cancelled. I think MCN have been misled by Garner into printing all sorts of claims about how many bikes they’re building a week etc. Sentence removed from original pending corroboration. They have to sell papers and the Norton concept helped them do that. Obviously I have kept quiet about all of this, and more, hoping that someone who was owed lots of money would close the company, which still appears to be insolvent. Because of this site, I think it’s now time to tell the truth about Garner." — Brian Crighton

This article represents the opinion of the author and does not necessarily represent the position of HellForLeatherMagazine.com, RideApart Inc. or any of its parent companies, subsidiaries, or affiliated organizations. Nick is a British photographer and journalist who creates BikerGlory, where this article originally appeared.

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